Here’s another excellent reminder of the importance of responding to others’ different beliefs gently, in “The 10 Commandments of Helping Students Distinguish Science from Pseudoscience in Psychology“:
Gently challenge students’ beliefs with sympathy and compassion. Students who are emotionally committed to paranormal beliefs will find these beliefs difficult to question, let alone relinquish. Ridiculing these beliefs can produce reactance and reinforce students’ stereotypes of science teachers as closed-minded and dismissive.
Summary of commandments:
- Delineate the features that distinguish science from pseudoscience.
- Distinguish skepticism from cynicism.
- Distinguish methodological skepticism from philosophical skepticism.
- Distinguish pseudoscientific claims from claims that are merely false.
- Distinguish science from scientists.
- Explain the cognitive underpinnings of pseudoscientific beliefs.
- Remember that pseudoscientific beliefs serve important motivational functions.
- Expose students to examples of good science as well as to examples of pseudoscience.
- Be consistent in one’s intellectual standards.
- Distinguish pseudoscientific claims from purely metaphysical religious claims.
I think the implications of these guidelines extend well beyond psychology into the nature of science more generally, and into methods for helping the broader public evaluate the connection between belief and evidence more critically. Guidelines #6 and #7 are especially valuable for describing how to do this respectfully and kindly.