Some historical context on how standardized tests have affected the elite points out how gatekeepers can magnify the influence of certain factors over others– whether through chance or through bias:
In 1947, the three significant testing organizations, the College Entrance Examination Board, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the American Council on Education, merged their testing divisions into the Educational Testing Service, which was headed by former Harvard Dean Henry Chauncey.
Chauncey was greatly affected by a 1948 Scientific Monthly article, “The Measurement of Mental Systems (Can Intelligence Be Measured?)” by W. Allison Davis and Robert J. Havighurst, which called intelligence tests nothing more than a scientific way to give preference to children from middle- and upper-middle-class families. The article challenged Chauncey’s belief that by expanding standardized tests of mental ability and knowledge America’s colleges would become the vanguard of a new meritocracy of intellect, ability and ambition, and not finishing schools for the privileged.
The authors, and others, challenged that the tests were biased. Challenges aside, the proponents of widespread standardized testing were instrumental in the process of who crossed the American economic divide, as college graduates became the country’s economic winners in the postwar era.
As Nicholas Lemann wrote in his book “The Big Test,” “The machinery that (Harvard President James) Conant and Chauncey and their allies created is today so familiar and all-encompassing that its seems almost like a natural phenomenon, or at least an organism that evolved spontaneously in response to conditions. … It’s not.”
As a New Mexico elementary teacher and blogger explains:
My point is that test scores have a lot of IMPACT because of the graduation requirements, even if they don’t always have a lot of VALUE as a measure of growth.
Instead of grade inflation, we have testing-influence inflation, where the impact of certain tests is magnified beyond that of other assessment metrics. It becomes a kind of market distortion in the economics of test scores, where some measurements are more visible and assume more value than others, inviting cheating and “gaming the system“.
We can restore openness and transparency to the system by collecting continuous assessment data that assign more equal weight across a wider range of testing experiences, removing incentives to cheat or “teach to the test”. Adaptive and personalized assessment go further in alleviating pressures to cheat, by reducing the inflated number of competitors against whom one may be compared. Assessment can then return to fulfilling its intended role of providing useful information on what a student has learned, thereby yielding better measures of growth and becoming more honestly meritocratic.